Awesome tip #1: In metasploit console (
msfconsole), once you have loaded up an exploit, take
show payloads for a spin. This will show all payloads that are compatible with the given exploit. Awesome!
Today we got the chance to work on Metasploitable 3, a Windows VM with a number of vunerability and flags (15ish of them).
Its a great way to take this knowledge and apply it to an actual machine. I wont detail a full walkthrough, as there are already plenty, and I don’t want to ruin the learning experience.
Once we gained a root shell no the (windows) machine, discovering the flags (images from a deck of cards), you will stumble upon pretty interesting obfuscation techniques. The 15 flags are somewhere. To add more forensic depth to the challenge, flags were corrupted/encoded/buried.
One page had a hex string (yes a hex string, not to be confused with base64). You’ll need to be comfortable with converting and decoding a range of formats, for example:
base64conv -i hex -o raw -r viewstate-data.txt -w joker.png
Alternate data streams on NTFS are one method of making files less visible. To show them:
Simple base64 decoding:
base64 -d encoded-flag.txt > flag.png
Extracting hidden images out of pdf and docx files:
pdfimages TODO unzip -d flag.docx
Grepping on Windows, with
findstr for example:
findstr /S /M /P /C:"hearts" *.log 2>null
/Mprint only the filename
/Pskip binary (non-printable) files
2>nulpipe file access errors to a blackhole
TODO: Get the Red and Blue Team books, which contain very useful common commands for dealing with Windows and NIX based operating systems.
TODO: Checkout Pico CTF. A simpler CTF, that builds up with gradient nicely.
TODO: Checkout CTF time.
TODO: Check out XOR encoding
TODO: Read up on rainbow tables.